Endï¿½lï¿½s'te sekiz asï¿½rlï¿½k ï¿½slam hï¿½kimiyeti dï¿½neminde Yahudiler ve Hï¿½ristiyanlar huzur iï¿½inde yaï¿½amlarï¿½nï¿½ sï¿½rdï¿½rmï¿½ï¿½lerdir. ï¿½ï¿½phesiz Endï¿½lï¿½s Mï¿½slï¿½manlarï¿½'nï¿½n tarihe ï¿½rnek teï¿½kil eden davranï¿½ï¿½larï¿½ndan kaynaklanan bu huzur ortamï¿½, Kuran ahlakï¿½nï¿½n yaï¿½anmasï¿½yla ortaya ï¿½ï¿½kmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. Bu nedenle Endï¿½lï¿½s dï¿½nemdeki anlayï¿½ï¿½, gï¿½nï¿½mï¿½zde medeniyetlerin barï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ iï¿½in model olabilecek tarihi deneyimlerdir.

ï¿½spanya'nï¿½n Fethi

Bugï¿½n bilinen ï¿½spanya ya da ï¿½berya Yarï¿½madasï¿½'nï¿½n fethi, ilk ï¿½slam fetihlerinin son halkasï¿½nï¿½ teï¿½kï¿½l eder. Emevï¿½lerin Kuzey Afrika Vï¿½lisi Musï¿½ b. Nusayr'ï¿½n, Halï¿½fe Velï¿½d b. Abdï¿½lmelik'ten aldï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ izinle 500 kiï¿½ilik bir birliï¿½i 710 yï¿½lï¿½nï¿½n ilkbaharï¿½nda keï¿½if amacï¿½yla ï¿½spanya'nï¿½n gï¿½ney kï¿½yï¿½larï¿½na yollamasï¿½yla fetih hareketi baï¿½lamï¿½ï¿½ oldu. Bu kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½k ï¿½ï¿½karmadan olumlu sonuï¿½ alï¿½nï¿½nca, Musa fetih hazï¿½rlï¿½klarï¿½nï¿½ yaptï¿½ ve 5 Receb 92/27 Nisan 711 yï¿½lï¿½nda Berberï¿½ ï¿½zï¿½tlï¿½sï¿½ Tï¿½rï¿½k bin Ziyï¿½d komutasï¿½nda 7000 asker gï¿½cï¿½ne sï¿½hip orduyu, ardï¿½ndan 5000 asker takviyesiyle ï¿½spanya'yï¿½ fethe yolladï¿½.
Bu esnada ï¿½spanya'da hï¿½kim olan Vizigot Krallï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ taht kavgalarï¿½, toplumsal-dinï¿½ ï¿½atï¿½ï¿½malar sebebiyle neredeyse gï¿½cï¿½nï¿½ yitirmiï¿½ durumdaydï¿½. Dolayï¿½sï¿½yla Emevi ordusu kolaylï¿½kla ï¿½spanya'ya geï¿½ti. Ordu komutasï¿½nda kahramanlï¿½k ï¿½rneï¿½i gï¿½steren Tarï¿½k bin Ziyad Cebeli Tarï¿½k Boï¿½azï¿½'nï¿½ geï¿½ip karaya ï¿½ï¿½ktï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nda tï¿½m gemileri yaktï¿½ ve bï¿½ylece Emevi ordusu geri dï¿½nï¿½ï¿½ olmadï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½ tek ï¿½ï¿½zï¿½mï¿½n bu yarï¿½madayï¿½ fethetmek olduï¿½unu anlayï¿½p cengaverce savaï¿½tï¿½. Kï¿½sa sï¿½re sonra Kral Rodrigo komutasï¿½ndaki Vizigot ordusunu ï¿½erï¿½ï¿½ (Xeres, Jerez) ve ï¿½ezï¿½ne (Sidonia) ï¿½ehirleri arasï¿½nda kalan Ferentï¿½re (Frontera) ovasï¿½ndaki Vï¿½dï¿½ Lekkï¿½/Lekke/Bekke (Guadalbeca, Rio Barbate) nehri kï¿½yï¿½sï¿½nda cereyï¿½n eden savaï¿½ta yendi (92/711) ve artï¿½k fethin ï¿½nï¿½nde ciddi bir engel kalmamï¿½ï¿½ oldu.
Zafer sonrasï¿½nda farklï¿½ ï¿½ehirlere doï¿½ru fetih iï¿½in gï¿½revlendirilen komutanlar kï¿½sa sï¿½rede baï¿½larï¿½ndaki Vizigot idaresinden memnun olmayan halklarï¿½n da yardï¿½mï¿½yla Mï¿½laga, ï¿½lbï¿½re (Elvira) ve Kurtuba'yï¿½ (Cordova, Cï¿½rdoba) ele geï¿½irdi. Bï¿½ylece bï¿½lge Emeviler'in hakimiyeti altï¿½na girmiï¿½ oldu. Ancak Mï¿½slï¿½man fatihlerin buradaki tek amacï¿½ ganimet ele geï¿½irmek deï¿½ildi, ï¿½ï¿½nkï¿½ Endï¿½lï¿½s onlarï¿½n bu gayelerine ulaï¿½mak iï¿½in oldukï¿½a yeterliydi. Bilakis, fetih hareketini bu ï¿½lkeyle sï¿½nï¿½rlï¿½ tutmalarï¿½, Endï¿½lï¿½s dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½na taï¿½mamalarï¿½ gerekirdi. Ne var ki, fetih hareketinin geri planï¿½nda ï¿½slam'ï¿½n siyasi nï¿½fuzunun geniï¿½letilmesi, Kuran ahlakï¿½nï¿½n yayï¿½lmasï¿½, yeryï¿½zï¿½nde adaleti tesis ederek zulmï¿½n ï¿½nï¿½ne geï¿½me gibi, ganimet faktï¿½rï¿½nden ï¿½ok daha manevi ve ï¿½nemli sebepler bulunduï¿½u iï¿½indir ki, fï¿½tihler daha evvel K.Afrika'nï¿½n fethiyle yetinmeyip Endï¿½lï¿½s'ï¿½n fethine koyulmuï¿½lardï¿½. Yine aynï¿½ sebepledir ki, Endï¿½lï¿½s'ï¿½n fethi sonrasï¿½nda maddi bakï¿½mdan daha az kazanï¿½lï¿½, can kaybï¿½ bakï¿½mï¿½ndan daha ï¿½ok riskli olmasï¿½na raï¿½men, kendilerini, neticede bï¿½tï¿½n Avrupa'nï¿½n hï¿½kimiyet altï¿½na alï¿½nmasï¿½nï¿½ hedefleyen yeni bir fetih hamlesinin iï¿½inde buldular.

Fetih Sonrasï¿½ ï¿½spanya Halkï¿½

Yapï¿½lan savaï¿½lar sonunda bï¿½lgeye iyice hakim olan Mï¿½slï¿½manlar, o dï¿½nemde ï¿½berya Yarï¿½madasï¿½'nda yaï¿½ayan halkï¿½n da sevgisini ve gï¿½venini kazanmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. ï¿½ï¿½nkï¿½ halk daha ï¿½nce ï¿½lkenin yï¿½netimi elinde bulunan Vizigot Krallï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ dï¿½neminde toplumsal ve dini ï¿½atï¿½ï¿½malara sahne olmuï¿½ ve adaletsiz bir ï¿½ekilde yï¿½netilmiï¿½tir. Mï¿½slï¿½manlarï¿½n hakimiyetiyle ise ï¿½lkeye refah, barï¿½ï¿½ ve zenginlik gelmiï¿½tir.
ï¿½spanya halkï¿½nï¿½n ï¿½oï¿½unluï¿½u Hï¿½ristiyan ve Yahudi olan gayrimï¿½slimlerden oluï¿½masï¿½na raï¿½men halk yï¿½llar boyu Mï¿½slï¿½manlarï¿½n yï¿½netiminde yaï¿½amï¿½ï¿½ ve bu yï¿½netimden oldukï¿½a memnun kalmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. O dï¿½nemde yaï¿½amï¿½ï¿½ olan gayrimï¿½slimlere tanï¿½nan temel haklar ï¿½u baï¿½lï¿½klarda toplanmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r:
ï¿½ahsi hï¿½rriyetler, seyahat ve yerleï¿½me hï¿½rriyeti, konut dokunulmazlï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, manevi hï¿½rriyetler, dinï¿½ mï¿½samaha, mabetlerin korunmasï¿½, ibadet hï¿½rriyeti ve dini sembollerin kullanï¿½lmasï¿½, kutsal gï¿½nlerinin tanï¿½nmasï¿½, dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nce aï¿½ï¿½klama hï¿½rriyeti, eï¿½itim-ï¿½ï¿½retim hï¿½rriyeti, dinï¿½ liderlerini seï¿½me hï¿½rriyeti, kamu irtifak hakkï¿½ ve hazine yardï¿½mï¿½, iktisadi ve sosyal haklar ve yasal haklarï¿½nï¿½ kullanma hakkï¿½.
Kï¿½sacasï¿½ halka her tï¿½rlï¿½ sosyal hak tanï¿½nmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. Bu saygï¿½ ve vefa dolayï¿½sï¿½yladï¿½r ki, Endï¿½lï¿½s'te sekiz asï¿½rlï¿½k ï¿½slam hï¿½kimiyeti dï¿½neminde Yahudi ve Hï¿½ristiyan varlï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ hep devam etmiï¿½tir. ï¿½ï¿½phesiz Endï¿½lï¿½s Mï¿½slï¿½manlarï¿½'nï¿½n tarihe ï¿½rnek teï¿½kil eden bu davranï¿½ï¿½larï¿½, Kuran ahlakï¿½nï¿½n insan hayatï¿½na sunduï¿½u bir gï¿½zellik ve ï¿½ï¿½zï¿½mdï¿½r. Allah Kuran-ï¿½ Kerim'in pek ï¿½ok ayetinde insanlara karï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½efkatli ve adaletli olmayï¿½ emreder. Dolayï¿½sï¿½yla Endï¿½lï¿½s Mï¿½slï¿½manlarï¿½'nï¿½n bu ï¿½ahsiyetli karakterleri kendilerine Kuran'ï¿½ rehber edinmelerinden kaynaklanmaktadï¿½r. Allah Mï¿½slï¿½manlarda gï¿½rï¿½len bu ï¿½stï¿½n ahlak ï¿½zelliï¿½ini bir ayette ï¿½ï¿½yle bildirir:
"Onlar ki, yeryï¿½zï¿½nde kendilerini yerleï¿½tirir, iktidar sahibi kï¿½larsak, dosdoï¿½ru namazï¿½ kï¿½larlar, zekatï¿½ verirler, ma'rufu emrederler, mï¿½nkerden sakï¿½ndï¿½rï¿½rlar. Bï¿½tï¿½n iï¿½lerin sonu Allah'a aittir." (Hac Suresi, 41)

Endï¿½lï¿½s'te Kï¿½ltï¿½r ve Sanat

ï¿½spanya, 8. yï¿½zyï¿½lï¿½n baï¿½larï¿½ndan itibaren Endï¿½lï¿½s Mï¿½slï¿½manlarï¿½ ile Hï¿½ristiyanlar arasï¿½nda yaklaï¿½ï¿½k 8 asï¿½r sï¿½ren bir siyasi ve askeri mï¿½cadeleye sahne olmuï¿½ ve bu iki topluluk arasï¿½ndaki medeniyet ve kï¿½ltï¿½r alï¿½ï¿½veriï¿½inde her iki kesim birbirlerini etkilemiï¿½lerdir. Bu etkileï¿½imde cazibe merkezini ise hiï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½phesiz Endï¿½lï¿½s oluï¿½turmuï¿½tur. Bu nedenle, Batï¿½ medeniyetinin kï¿½kleri, en az Yunan ve Roma medeniyetleri kadar ï¿½slam medeniyetine de baï¿½lï¿½dï¿½r. Endï¿½lï¿½s-ï¿½slam medeniyetinin tarihi ve gï¿½ncel ï¿½nemi burada ortaya ï¿½ï¿½kmaktadï¿½r.
Endï¿½lï¿½s medeniyeti, bir kitap medeniyeti olarak tarihteki yerini almï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. Endï¿½lï¿½s tarihine dair kaynak eserlerde, Mï¿½slï¿½man alimlerin binlerce eser kaleme aldï¿½klarï¿½ belirtilmektedir. Baï¿½nazlarï¿½n sebep olduï¿½u tahripler veya baï¿½ka nedenlerle maalesef bu kitaplarï¿½n bï¿½yï¿½k bir bï¿½lï¿½mï¿½ yok olmuï¿½, kayï¿½plara karï¿½ï¿½mï¿½ï¿½, dolayï¿½sï¿½yla da gï¿½nï¿½mï¿½ze ulaï¿½amamï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r.
Kitap sevgisinin bir neticesi olarak Endï¿½lï¿½s'te ï¿½ok sayï¿½da kï¿½tï¿½phane kurulmuï¿½tur. Endï¿½lï¿½s'ï¿½n muhtelif ï¿½ehirlerinde kitap ï¿½arï¿½ï¿½larï¿½ bulunuyordu. Endï¿½lï¿½s kï¿½tï¿½phanelerindeki kitaplarï¿½n bir kï¿½smï¿½, iï¿½ karï¿½ï¿½ï¿½klï¿½klar esnasï¿½nda yaï¿½malanï¿½p satï¿½lmï¿½ï¿½ ve ï¿½nemli bir bï¿½lï¿½mï¿½ de Kuzey Afrika'ya gï¿½tï¿½rï¿½lmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. Arta kalanlar ise, Hï¿½ristiyan iï¿½gali esnasï¿½nda yok olup gitmiï¿½tir.
Bï¿½tï¿½n bunlara raï¿½men, Endï¿½lï¿½s-ï¿½slam medeniyetinin ilim, kï¿½ltï¿½r ve sanat hayatï¿½, Batï¿½ ve ï¿½slam dï¿½nyasï¿½nda unutulmaz tesirler meydana getirmiï¿½tir. Endï¿½lï¿½s medeniyetinin ilim ve kï¿½ltï¿½r hayatï¿½nï¿½n temel dinamiklerini kavramak, insanlï¿½ï¿½ï¿½n ebedi olarak muhtaï¿½ olduï¿½u ortak deï¿½erlerin anlaï¿½ï¿½lmasï¿½nda ï¿½nemli bir fonksiyon icra edecektir.
Endï¿½lï¿½s-ï¿½slam dï¿½nyasï¿½, ï¿½slam medeniyetinin yeni bir hamle, yeni bir dinamizm kazandï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ yerdir. Bu dï¿½nemde, tï¿½pta, eczacï¿½lï¿½kta, astronomide, fizik ve matematikte dï¿½nya ï¿½apï¿½nda bilginler yetiï¿½ti. Bu ilmi ortamda fikir hayatï¿½ da ï¿½ok geliï¿½ti. Bunlar arasï¿½nda bï¿½yï¿½k fikir adamlarï¿½ ve filozoflar yetiï¿½miï¿½tir.
ï¿½bn Tufeyl (Abentofol, 1106-1186), ï¿½bn Bï¿½cce (Avenpace, Avempace, 1160?-1138) ve ï¿½bn Rï¿½ï¿½d (Averroes, 1126-1198) bu mï¿½tefekkirlerin en bï¿½yï¿½kleri ve en meï¿½hurlarï¿½ndandï¿½r. (Prof.Dr. S. Hayri Bolay, "Endï¿½lï¿½s'te Geliï¿½en Dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nce Hayatï¿½ ve Batï¿½ya Tesirleri", Endï¿½lï¿½s'ten ï¿½spanya'ya, TDV, Ankara 1996'dan alï¿½ntï¿½dï¿½r.)

ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½k, hemen hemen her
toplum ve ideolojiden kiï¿½inin hemfikir olduï¿½u ve savunduï¿½u bir kavramdï¿½r.
ï¿½nsanlï¿½k tarihindeki ï¿½atï¿½ï¿½malarï¿½n, savaï¿½larï¿½n ï¿½oï¿½undaki amaï¿½, ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½ï¿½ï¿½
kazanmak olmuï¿½tur.
Batï¿½ dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ncesinin ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½ï¿½e verdiï¿½i anlamï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½yle ï¿½zetleyebiliriz:
ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½k, insana, diï¿½er insanlar (toplum) ya da devlet -veya baï¿½ka
herhangi bir kurum- tarafï¿½ndan hiï¿½bir kï¿½sï¿½tlama ve baskï¿½ yapï¿½lmamasï¿½dï¿½r.Bugï¿½n
Batï¿½ toplumlarï¿½nï¿½n iï¿½inde bulunduklarï¿½ toplumsal yapï¿½, modern Batï¿½
felsefesi tarafï¿½ndan tarifi yapï¿½lan "ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½k" kavramï¿½nï¿½n,
insanï¿½n kurtuluï¿½unu saï¿½lamadï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½ gï¿½stermektedir.

Okullarda, bilimsel kaynaklarda ve bir kï¿½sï¿½m medyada, teori ispatlanmï¿½ï¿½
bir gerï¿½ek gibi sunulmakta, pek ï¿½ok insan da bu nedenle evrimi hiï¿½
sorgulamadan kabul etmektedir. Oysa her geï¿½en gï¿½n geliï¿½en, paleoantropoloji,
antropoloji ve mikrobiyoloji gibi bilim dallarï¿½, sï¿½zï¿½nï¿½ ettiï¿½imiz
yaygï¿½n inanï¿½ï¿½ï¿½n aksine, evrim teorisini sï¿½rekli yalanlamaktadï¿½rlar.
Evrimi ispatlamak iï¿½in 150 yï¿½ldï¿½r aralï¿½ksï¿½z sï¿½rdï¿½rï¿½len ï¿½alï¿½ï¿½malar,
teoriyi ï¿½ï¿½rï¿½tmekten baï¿½ka bir sonuca varamamï¿½ï¿½lardï¿½r.
Bu gerï¿½eï¿½e raï¿½men, evrim teorisinin bu denli yaygï¿½n bir biï¿½imde
savunulmasï¿½ ve insanlara empoze edilmesinin tek nedeni ise, teorinin
ideolojik yï¿½nï¿½dï¿½r.