Japonlarï¿½n hï¿½zlï¿½ trenleri dï¿½nya ï¿½apï¿½nda ï¿½ne sahiptir. Ancak hï¿½zlï¿½ trenleri geliï¿½tiren tasarï¿½mcï¿½larï¿½n yakï¿½n zamana kadar ï¿½stesinden gelemedikleri bir sorunlarï¿½ vardï¿½: Gï¿½rï¿½ltï¿½.

"500 serisi" olarak adlandï¿½rï¿½lan hï¿½zlï¿½ trenlerin tasarï¿½mï¿½nda da bu problemle karï¿½ï¿½laï¿½ï¿½ldï¿½. Trenin hï¿½zï¿½ arttï¿½kï¿½a, elektrik telleriyle temas eden parï¿½alar gï¿½ï¿½lï¿½ bir uï¿½ultu ï¿½ï¿½karmakta ve yolcularï¿½ rahatsï¿½z etmekteydi. Trenler ayrï¿½ca kent iï¿½indeki yerleï¿½im bï¿½lgelerinde ciddi oranlarda ses kirliliï¿½ine yol aï¿½maktaydï¿½. Mï¿½hendisler Shinkansen ismini verdikleri hï¿½zlï¿½ trenlerde bu sorunu gidermeyi baï¿½ardï¿½lar. Ama atï¿½lyede daha yoï¿½un ï¿½alï¿½ï¿½arak deï¿½il, baykuï¿½u taklit ederek.

Bir Baykuï¿½un Uï¿½uï¿½u ve Hï¿½zlï¿½ Trenin Gï¿½rï¿½ltï¿½sï¿½

Japonyaï¿½da gï¿½rï¿½ltï¿½ konusu ve ï¿½evre standartlarï¿½ dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½lenden de fazla ï¿½nemsenen bir konudur. Japonya dï¿½nyadaki demiryolu iï¿½letmeleri iï¿½erisinde en katï¿½ "gï¿½rï¿½ltï¿½ standartlarï¿½"na sahiptir. Bugï¿½n mevcut teknolojileri kullanarak daha hï¿½zlï¿½ gitmek kolaydï¿½r, ama daha sessiz gitmek zordur. Japon ï¿½evre Bakanlï¿½ï¿½ï¿½'nï¿½n dï¿½zenlemelerine gï¿½re, yerleï¿½im merkezlerinden geï¿½en bir demiryolunun 25 metre uzaï¿½ï¿½nda gï¿½rï¿½ltï¿½ seviyesi 75 desibel veya daha az olmalï¿½dï¿½r. Oysa kï¿½rmï¿½zï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½kta duran arabalarï¿½n yeï¿½il ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½k yandï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nda aynï¿½ anda harekete geï¿½melerinden ï¿½tï¿½rï¿½ oluï¿½an gï¿½rï¿½ltï¿½ bile 80 desibeli geï¿½mektedir. Bu deï¿½erlerle yapï¿½lan kï¿½yaslama "Shinkansen" adlï¿½ hï¿½zlï¿½ trenin ne kadar sessiz olmasï¿½ gerektiï¿½ini ortaya koymaktadï¿½r.

Trenin belli bir hï¿½za ulaï¿½ana kadar ï¿½ï¿½kardï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ sesin nedeni, tekerleklerin raylar ï¿½zerindeki hareketidir. Ancak hï¿½zï¿½ 200 km/s olduï¿½unda sesin asï¿½l kaynaï¿½ï¿½, trenin hava iï¿½indeki hareketiyle ortaya ï¿½ï¿½kan aerodinamik gï¿½rï¿½ltï¿½dï¿½r.

Aerodinamik gï¿½rï¿½ltï¿½nï¿½n oluï¿½masï¿½ndaki bir numaralï¿½ etken ise tepedeki tellerden elektrik almak iï¿½in kullanï¿½lan pantograflar veya akï¿½m toplayï¿½cï¿½lardï¿½r. Normalde kullanï¿½lan dikdï¿½rtgen ï¿½ekilli pantograflarla gï¿½rï¿½ltï¿½nï¿½n azalmayacaï¿½ï¿½nï¿½ fark eden mï¿½hendisler, araï¿½tï¿½rmalarï¿½nï¿½ hï¿½zlï¿½ ama sessiz hareket eden canlï¿½lar ï¿½zerinde yoï¿½unlaï¿½tï¿½rmï¿½ï¿½lardï¿½r.

Japon araï¿½tï¿½rmacï¿½lar canlï¿½lar ï¿½zerindeki ï¿½alï¿½ï¿½malarï¿½ sonucunda fark etmiï¿½lerdir ki tï¿½m kuï¿½lar iï¿½inde en sessiz uï¿½uï¿½u baykuï¿½ gerï¿½ekleï¿½tirir. ï¿½yle ki bir baykuï¿½ avï¿½nï¿½n ï¿½zerine atï¿½ldï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nda, avlanan canlï¿½ hiï¿½bir ses algï¿½layamaz. Bir hayalet uï¿½ak gibi fark edilmeden uï¿½abilen baykuï¿½un sï¿½rrï¿½ kanatlarï¿½ndaki tï¿½ylerdedir. Tï¿½ylerin kenarï¿½nda bir testeredeki gibi dizilmiï¿½ dï¿½zenli diï¿½ler bulunur. Baykuï¿½ kanat ï¿½ï¿½rptï¿½kï¿½a hava bunlarï¿½n arasï¿½ndan sï¿½zï¿½lerek gï¿½rï¿½ltï¿½ engellenmiï¿½ olur.

Baykuï¿½un ses sorununu uygun ï¿½ekilde ï¿½ï¿½zdï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½ fark eden Japon mï¿½hendisler baykuï¿½u ï¿½rnek alan yeni parï¿½alar tasarladï¿½lar. ï¿½retilen bu yeni parï¿½anï¿½n gï¿½vde kï¿½smï¿½na baykuï¿½ tï¿½yï¿½nï¿½ taklit eden diï¿½ler yerleï¿½tirildi. Yapï¿½lan denemeler baï¿½arï¿½lï¿½ oldu: Rahatsï¿½z edici ses tamamen ortadan kaldï¿½rï¿½lmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½.
Baykuï¿½larï¿½n dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½k sesle uï¿½masï¿½nï¿½n ardï¿½ndaki sebeplerden bir tanesi, kanatlarï¿½ndaki kï¿½vrï¿½mlardï¿½r. Baykuï¿½larï¿½n kanatlarï¿½nda diï¿½er kuï¿½larda bulunmayan pï¿½rï¿½zlï¿½ tï¿½yler vardï¿½r. Bunlar gï¿½zle bile gï¿½rï¿½lebilirler. "Aerodinamik ses" ise hava akï¿½mï¿½nda oluï¿½an girdaplardan kaynaklanï¿½r. Girdaplar bï¿½yï¿½dï¿½kï¿½e ses de artar. Baykuï¿½un kanadï¿½nda ï¿½ok sayï¿½da pï¿½rï¿½zlï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½kï¿½ntï¿½ olduï¿½undan, bï¿½yï¿½k girdaplar yerine kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½k girdaplar oluï¿½ur ve baykuï¿½ son derece sessiz bir uï¿½uï¿½ gerï¿½ekleï¿½tirir.

Japon mï¿½hendis ve tasarï¿½mcï¿½lar, bir baykuï¿½u rï¿½zgar tï¿½nelinde teste tabi tuttuklarï¿½nda, bu kuï¿½un kanat yapï¿½sï¿½ndaki mï¿½kemmelliï¿½i bir kez daha gï¿½rmï¿½ï¿½lerdir. Sonunda trenin ï¿½zerindeki gï¿½rï¿½ltï¿½yï¿½, baykuï¿½un sahip olduï¿½u dï¿½zensiz tï¿½y prensibine benzeyen kanat ï¿½eklinde pantograflar kullanarak etkin biï¿½imde azaltmayï¿½ baï¿½armï¿½ï¿½lardï¿½r. Bu sayede Japonlarï¿½n doï¿½adan esinlenerek taklit ettikleri pantograf benzeri sistem, "iï¿½ini en sessiz olarak yapan" ï¿½nvanï¿½nï¿½ almaya hak kazanmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r.

Gï¿½rï¿½ltï¿½ye ï¿½ï¿½zï¿½m Kuï¿½un Suya Dalï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nda

Ancak Japon mï¿½hendislerin Shinkansen trenleriyle ilgili bir sorunlarï¿½ daha vardï¿½. Trenlerin yol ï¿½zerindeki tï¿½nellere giriï¿½ ve ï¿½ï¿½kï¿½ï¿½larï¿½ yolcular aï¿½ï¿½sï¿½ndan sï¿½kï¿½ntï¿½ oluï¿½turuyordu. Tren, girdiï¿½i bir tï¿½nelden ï¿½ï¿½kar ï¿½ï¿½kmaz yolcularï¿½ irkilten bir tï¿½r patlama sesi ortaya ï¿½ï¿½kï¿½yordu. (Harun Yahya, Biomimetik)

Tï¿½nelin iï¿½inde sï¿½kï¿½ï¿½an hava trenin ï¿½nï¿½nde sï¿½rï¿½kleniyor, tï¿½nel ï¿½ï¿½kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nda basï¿½nï¿½ etkisiyle patlama sesi meydana getiriyordu. Mï¿½hendisler ï¿½ï¿½zï¿½m olarak tï¿½nellerin geniï¿½letilmesini ï¿½nerdilerse de bu proje mali yï¿½kï¿½ aï¿½ï¿½sï¿½ndan iï¿½leme konamadï¿½. Bu soruna ï¿½ï¿½zï¿½m getirmek iï¿½in uï¿½raï¿½an mï¿½hendislerden biri de Eiji Nakatsu idi.

Bay Nakatsu, aynï¿½ zamanda Japonyaï¿½nï¿½n Doï¿½al Kuï¿½lar Derneï¿½iï¿½nin de bir ï¿½yesiydi. Bir gï¿½n yalï¿½ ï¿½apkï¿½nï¿½ kuï¿½u dikkatini ï¿½ekti. Kuï¿½ ï¿½ok uzun bir gagaya sahipti ve suya ï¿½ok gï¿½zel ï¿½ekilde bir dalï¿½ï¿½ yapabiliyordu. Bu sivri gaga, basï¿½ncï¿½ az olan havadan basï¿½ncï¿½ ï¿½ok olan suya girerken adeta bir matkap gï¿½revi gï¿½rï¿½yordu.

Bu gï¿½zlem Bay Nakatsu iï¿½in harika bir ilham kaynaï¿½ï¿½ oldu. Nakatsu ve ekibi kuï¿½un gagasï¿½nï¿½ Shinkansen trenlerine uyarlamaya karar verdiler. Yapï¿½lan analizlerde kuï¿½un gagasï¿½nï¿½n matematiksel denklemi kaï¿½ï¿½da dï¿½kï¿½ldï¿½ ve trenin burun kï¿½smï¿½ yeniden tasarlandï¿½. Sonuï¿½ta ortaya upuzun bir burun ï¿½ï¿½ktï¿½. ï¿½nceki modele gï¿½re ï¿½ok daha uzun olan bu sivri burun sayesinde tï¿½nel sorunu da aï¿½ï¿½ldï¿½. Tï¿½neldeki hava trenin sivri burnunun ï¿½stï¿½nden akï¿½p kolaylï¿½kla arkasï¿½na geï¿½iyor bï¿½ylece ses engelleniyordu.

Shinkansen trenindeki bu iki ï¿½rnek son derece ï¿½arpï¿½cï¿½dï¿½r. Uzman Japon mï¿½hendisler kuï¿½larï¿½ ï¿½rnek alarak ï¿½ï¿½zï¿½me ulaï¿½mï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r oysa baykuï¿½ ve yalï¿½ ï¿½apkï¿½nï¿½ yaratï¿½ldï¿½klarï¿½ ilk andan itibaren mï¿½hendislerin ï¿½rnek aldï¿½klarï¿½ bu ï¿½zel sistemlere sahiptir. Bu canlï¿½lar kanatlarï¿½ndaki tï¿½yden gagalarï¿½na kadar Allahï¿½ï¿½n ï¿½stï¿½n yaratï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½ gï¿½sterirler. Yï¿½ce Allah hiï¿½bir ï¿½rnek edinmeksizin ve tek bir emirle yaratandï¿½r. Allah bir ayette ï¿½ï¿½yle buyurmaktadï¿½r:
ï¿½Gï¿½kleri ve yeri (bir ï¿½rnek edinmeksizin) yaratandï¿½r. O, bir iï¿½in olmasï¿½na karar verirse, ona yalnï¿½zca "OL" der, o da hemen oluverir.ï¿½(Bakara Suresi, 117)

Yorum listesi

Mevcut bir yorum yok.

ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½k, hemen hemen her
toplum ve ideolojiden kiï¿½inin hemfikir olduï¿½u ve savunduï¿½u bir kavramdï¿½r.
ï¿½nsanlï¿½k tarihindeki ï¿½atï¿½ï¿½malarï¿½n, savaï¿½larï¿½n ï¿½oï¿½undaki amaï¿½, ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½ï¿½ï¿½
kazanmak olmuï¿½tur.
Batï¿½ dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ncesinin ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½ï¿½e verdiï¿½i anlamï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½yle ï¿½zetleyebiliriz:
ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½k, insana, diï¿½er insanlar (toplum) ya da devlet -veya baï¿½ka
herhangi bir kurum- tarafï¿½ndan hiï¿½bir kï¿½sï¿½tlama ve baskï¿½ yapï¿½lmamasï¿½dï¿½r.Bugï¿½n
Batï¿½ toplumlarï¿½nï¿½n iï¿½inde bulunduklarï¿½ toplumsal yapï¿½, modern Batï¿½
felsefesi tarafï¿½ndan tarifi yapï¿½lan "ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½k" kavramï¿½nï¿½n,
insanï¿½n kurtuluï¿½unu saï¿½lamadï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½ gï¿½stermektedir.

Okullarda, bilimsel kaynaklarda ve bir kï¿½sï¿½m medyada, teori ispatlanmï¿½ï¿½
bir gerï¿½ek gibi sunulmakta, pek ï¿½ok insan da bu nedenle evrimi hiï¿½
sorgulamadan kabul etmektedir. Oysa her geï¿½en gï¿½n geliï¿½en, paleoantropoloji,
antropoloji ve mikrobiyoloji gibi bilim dallarï¿½, sï¿½zï¿½nï¿½ ettiï¿½imiz
yaygï¿½n inanï¿½ï¿½ï¿½n aksine, evrim teorisini sï¿½rekli yalanlamaktadï¿½rlar.
Evrimi ispatlamak iï¿½in 150 yï¿½ldï¿½r aralï¿½ksï¿½z sï¿½rdï¿½rï¿½len ï¿½alï¿½ï¿½malar,
teoriyi ï¿½ï¿½rï¿½tmekten baï¿½ka bir sonuca varamamï¿½ï¿½lardï¿½r.
Bu gerï¿½eï¿½e raï¿½men, evrim teorisinin bu denli yaygï¿½n bir biï¿½imde
savunulmasï¿½ ve insanlara empoze edilmesinin tek nedeni ise, teorinin
ideolojik yï¿½nï¿½dï¿½r.