ï¿½iddet ve Terï¿½r Baï¿½ï¿½mlï¿½sï¿½ Bir ï¿½deoloji: Neo-Nazizm

Geï¿½tiï¿½imiz son on yï¿½l iï¿½erisinde ise dï¿½nya genelinde ï¿½rkï¿½ï¿½ ve faï¿½ist ï¿½rgï¿½tlenmelerin ve ï¿½iddet eylemlerinin sayï¿½sï¿½nda gï¿½zle gï¿½rï¿½lï¿½r bir artï¿½ï¿½ yaï¿½andï¿½. Avrupa, neo-Nazilerin neden olduï¿½u ï¿½iddet olaylarï¿½ ile mï¿½cadele ederken, Amerika yeniden aktif hale gelen Klu Klux Klan ve benzeri "Beyaz Irkï¿½n ï¿½stï¿½nlï¿½ï¿½ï¿½" ï¿½rgï¿½tleri ile uï¿½raï¿½mak zorunda kaldï¿½. Klu Klux Klan ï¿½emsiyesi altï¿½nda toplanan ï¿½rkï¿½ï¿½ gruplar Amerika'da ï¿½rkï¿½ï¿½lï¿½ï¿½ï¿½n ve yabancï¿½ dï¿½ï¿½manlï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½n temsilciliï¿½ini yaparken, Avrupa'da bu iï¿½i neo-Naziler ï¿½stlendi.

ï¿½nceleri ï¿½ngiltere'de dazlak hareketi olarak baï¿½layan Avrupa ï¿½rkï¿½ï¿½lï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, 1990'larda bir Nazi hareketine dï¿½nï¿½ï¿½tï¿½. Kendilerini neo-Naziler olarak adlandï¿½ran bu gruplarï¿½n ana ï¿½zelliï¿½i, tï¿½pkï¿½ Klu Klux Klan gibi beyaz ï¿½rkï¿½n ï¿½stï¿½nlï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½ savunmalarï¿½ ve yabancï¿½lara ve fakir mahallelerde yaï¿½ayanlara karï¿½ï¿½ saldï¿½rï¿½lar dï¿½zenlemeleriydi.

Son 10 yï¿½ldï¿½r neo-Nazi hareketi giderek gï¿½ï¿½lenmekte ve etki alanï¿½nï¿½ geniï¿½letmektedir. Bu ï¿½rgï¿½tler bugï¿½n 6 kï¿½tada ve 33 ï¿½lkede aktif durumdadï¿½rlar. ï¿½yelerinin sayï¿½sï¿½ ise 70 bini bulmaktadï¿½r. Neo-Naziler her ï¿½lkede kendilerine farklï¿½ hedefler belirlemiï¿½lerdir. Yapï¿½lan bir araï¿½tï¿½rmada belirtildiï¿½ine gï¿½re, Almanya'da Tï¿½rkler; Macaristan'da, Slovakya ve ï¿½ek Cumhuriyeti'nde ï¿½ingeneler; ï¿½ngiltere'de Asyalï¿½lar; Fransa'da Kuzey Afrikalï¿½lar; Brezilya'da Kuzey Doï¿½ulular neo-Nazilerin hedefleri arasï¿½ndadï¿½r. ï¿½iddet, kin, nefret, yï¿½ldï¿½rma, korkutma, tehdit, yakï¿½p yï¿½kma, zarar verme neo-Nazilerin baï¿½lï¿½ca ï¿½zellikleri arasï¿½ndadï¿½r.

Resmi Alman istatistiklerine gï¿½re 1999 yï¿½lï¿½nda sadece Almanya'da ï¿½rkï¿½ï¿½lï¿½k ve yabancï¿½ dï¿½ï¿½manlï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ndan kaynaklanan 10.037 olay tespit edilmiï¿½tir. 2000 yï¿½lï¿½nda aï¿½ï¿½klanan ï¿½rkï¿½ï¿½lï¿½k olaylarï¿½ da onbinin ï¿½zerindedir. ï¿½ngiltere'de ise sadece Nisan ile Eylï¿½l aylarï¿½ arasï¿½nda tespit edilen ï¿½rkï¿½ï¿½lï¿½k kaynaklï¿½ suï¿½larï¿½n sayï¿½sï¿½ 10.982'dir. Bu suï¿½larï¿½n yarï¿½sï¿½nï¿½n korkutma, gï¿½z daï¿½ï¿½ verme ve yï¿½ldï¿½rma ï¿½eklinde olduï¿½u belirtilmiï¿½tir. ï¿½ldï¿½rme, yaralama, ev ve iï¿½ yerlerine saldï¿½rï¿½ gibi eylemler ise bu suï¿½ listesinin diï¿½er yarï¿½sï¿½nï¿½ oluï¿½turmaktadï¿½r.

90'larda geliï¿½en neo-Nazi hareketinin fikir babalarï¿½ arasï¿½nda Louis Beam ve William Pierce isimli Amerikalï¿½ radikal saï¿½ gï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ savunan ideologlarï¿½n ayrï¿½ birer yeri vardï¿½r. Bu ideologlarï¿½n ortaya koyduï¿½u, 'lidersiz direniï¿½' ve 'beyaz devrim' kavramlarï¿½ bugï¿½n tï¿½m neo-Nazi hareketine hakim olmuï¿½ durumdadï¿½r. Gï¿½nï¿½mï¿½zde ï¿½eï¿½itli ï¿½lkelerde yaï¿½anan bombalama, kundaklama ve iï¿½ yerlerini tahrip etme gibi bireysel terï¿½r hareketlerinin temelinde de 'lidersiz direniï¿½' kavramï¿½ yer almaktadï¿½r. Bu kavram doï¿½rultusunda neo-Naziler eylemlerini, ya bireysel olarak gerï¿½ekleï¿½tirmekte ya da kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½k ï¿½eteler halinde hareket etmektedirler. (Darwinizmï¿½in Kanlï¿½ ï¿½deolojisi: Faï¿½izm)

Oklahoma Bombacï¿½sï¿½ da Neo-Nazi ï¿½di

Amerikan halkï¿½nï¿½n 11 Eylï¿½l 2001 tarihli saldï¿½rï¿½dan ï¿½nce, ï¿½ahit olduï¿½u en bï¿½yï¿½k terï¿½rist saldï¿½rï¿½, Timothy McVeigh tarafï¿½ndan Oklahoma'daki Federal Bina'ya yapï¿½lan bombalï¿½ saldï¿½rï¿½dï¿½r. Bu saldï¿½rï¿½ sonucunda ï¿½ocuklarï¿½n da dahil olduï¿½u 168 kiï¿½i hayatï¿½nï¿½ kaybetmiï¿½tir. Olayï¿½ ilginï¿½ kï¿½lan ise Timothy McVeigh'in hem bir sapkï¿½n tarikat sempatizanï¿½ hem de bir neo-Nazi olmasï¿½dï¿½r.
McVeigh bu katliamï¿½, 1993 yï¿½lï¿½nda ï¿½iftliklerinde yanarak hayatlarï¿½nï¿½ kaybeden David Koresh ve takipï¿½ilerinin intikamï¿½nï¿½ almak iï¿½in gerï¿½ekleï¿½tirdiï¿½ini sï¿½ylemiï¿½tir. McVeigh'e gï¿½re Koresh ve tarikat ï¿½yeleri kendilerini yakmamï¿½ï¿½lar, Amerikan Devleti tarafï¿½ndan yakï¿½lmï¿½ï¿½lardï¿½r. Bu nedenle olayï¿½n intikamï¿½nï¿½ Amerikan Devleti'nden almaya karar vermiï¿½ ve Federal Bina'yï¿½ bombalayarak devlet adï¿½na ï¿½alï¿½ï¿½anlarï¿½ ï¿½ldï¿½rmeyi planlamï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. David Koresh tarikatï¿½nï¿½n intihar olayï¿½ndan tam iki yï¿½l sonra, olayï¿½n yï¿½l dï¿½nï¿½mï¿½nde, patlayï¿½cï¿½ dolu kamyonetini binanï¿½n ï¿½nï¿½ne bï¿½rakï¿½p soï¿½ukkanlï¿½lï¿½k ile olaylarï¿½n geliï¿½imini izlemiï¿½tir. Saldï¿½rï¿½ sï¿½rasï¿½nda baï¿½ka bir neo-Nazi olan Terry Nichols isimli arkadaï¿½ï¿½ da McVeigh'e yardï¿½m etmiï¿½tir. Terry Nichols ile birlikte olayï¿½n ï¿½ncesinde McVeigh'e destek olan, patlayï¿½cï¿½larï¿½ bulmasï¿½nda yardï¿½m eden ve McVeigh'in bï¿½yle bir saldï¿½rï¿½da bulunacaï¿½ï¿½nï¿½ bilenlerin en ï¿½nemli ortak ï¿½zelliï¿½i ise neo-Nazi olmalarï¿½dï¿½r.

McVeigh, idam edilmesinden kï¿½sa bir sï¿½re ï¿½nce The Buffalo News gazetesine gï¿½nderdiï¿½i mektupta, yaptï¿½klarï¿½ndan dolayï¿½ piï¿½man olmadï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½, devlete karï¿½ï¿½ verdiï¿½i mï¿½cadelede bombalama eyleminin 'en mantï¿½klï¿½ taktik' olduï¿½unu sï¿½ylemiï¿½ti. Tamamen hasta bir zihniyetin ï¿½rï¿½nï¿½ olan bu saldï¿½rï¿½, bir kez daha bizlere yukarï¿½da ï¿½zerinde durduï¿½umuz akï¿½mlarï¿½n insanlar ï¿½zerinde nasï¿½l bï¿½yï¿½k tahribatlara neden olduklarï¿½nï¿½ ve toplumlara nasï¿½l bï¿½yï¿½k belalar getirdiï¿½ini gï¿½stermesi aï¿½ï¿½sï¿½ndan ibret vericidir. (Stuart Firestein, "Olfactory Receptor Neurons", Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, Aralï¿½k 2000, http: //www.els.net)

Unutulmamalï¿½dï¿½r ki toplumlara, halklara ya da insanlara ï¿½stï¿½nlï¿½k saï¿½layan, ancak bu insanlarï¿½n gï¿½zel ahlaklarï¿½dï¿½r. Kiï¿½ilerin hangi ï¿½rktan olduklarï¿½nï¿½n, hangi dili konuï¿½tuklarï¿½nï¿½n ya da derilerinin ne renk olduï¿½unun hiï¿½bir ï¿½nemi yoktur. Bu deï¿½erlere gï¿½re ï¿½stï¿½nlï¿½k saï¿½lamaya ï¿½alï¿½ï¿½mak ve diï¿½er toplumlara dï¿½ï¿½manlï¿½k beslemek, sapkï¿½n ideolojilerin birer ï¿½rï¿½nï¿½dï¿½r. Allah, insanlarï¿½n arasï¿½ndaki soy farklï¿½lï¿½klarï¿½nï¿½n bir "tanï¿½ï¿½ma", yani dostluk ve kï¿½ltï¿½rel alï¿½ï¿½-veriï¿½ vesilesi olduï¿½unu ve ï¿½stï¿½nlï¿½ï¿½ï¿½n de sadece takvaya, yani iman ve ahlaka gï¿½re belirlendiï¿½ini bildirmiï¿½tir.
ï¿½Ey insanlar, gerï¿½ekten, Biz sizi bir erkek ve bir diï¿½iden yarattï¿½k ve birbirinizle tanï¿½ï¿½manï¿½z iï¿½in sizi halklar ve kabileler kï¿½ldï¿½k. ï¿½ï¿½phesiz, Allah katï¿½nda sizin en ï¿½stï¿½n olanï¿½nï¿½z, (ï¿½rk ya da soyca deï¿½il) takvaca en ileride olanï¿½nï¿½zdï¿½r. ï¿½ï¿½phesiz Allah,
bilendir, haber alandï¿½r.ï¿½ (Hucurat Suresi, 13)

ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½k, hemen hemen her
toplum ve ideolojiden kiï¿½inin hemfikir olduï¿½u ve savunduï¿½u bir kavramdï¿½r.
ï¿½nsanlï¿½k tarihindeki ï¿½atï¿½ï¿½malarï¿½n, savaï¿½larï¿½n ï¿½oï¿½undaki amaï¿½, ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½ï¿½ï¿½
kazanmak olmuï¿½tur.
Batï¿½ dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ncesinin ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½ï¿½e verdiï¿½i anlamï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½yle ï¿½zetleyebiliriz:
ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½k, insana, diï¿½er insanlar (toplum) ya da devlet -veya baï¿½ka
herhangi bir kurum- tarafï¿½ndan hiï¿½bir kï¿½sï¿½tlama ve baskï¿½ yapï¿½lmamasï¿½dï¿½r.Bugï¿½n
Batï¿½ toplumlarï¿½nï¿½n iï¿½inde bulunduklarï¿½ toplumsal yapï¿½, modern Batï¿½
felsefesi tarafï¿½ndan tarifi yapï¿½lan "ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½k" kavramï¿½nï¿½n,
insanï¿½n kurtuluï¿½unu saï¿½lamadï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½ gï¿½stermektedir.

Okullarda, bilimsel kaynaklarda ve bir kï¿½sï¿½m medyada, teori ispatlanmï¿½ï¿½
bir gerï¿½ek gibi sunulmakta, pek ï¿½ok insan da bu nedenle evrimi hiï¿½
sorgulamadan kabul etmektedir. Oysa her geï¿½en gï¿½n geliï¿½en, paleoantropoloji,
antropoloji ve mikrobiyoloji gibi bilim dallarï¿½, sï¿½zï¿½nï¿½ ettiï¿½imiz
yaygï¿½n inanï¿½ï¿½ï¿½n aksine, evrim teorisini sï¿½rekli yalanlamaktadï¿½rlar.
Evrimi ispatlamak iï¿½in 150 yï¿½ldï¿½r aralï¿½ksï¿½z sï¿½rdï¿½rï¿½len ï¿½alï¿½ï¿½malar,
teoriyi ï¿½ï¿½rï¿½tmekten baï¿½ka bir sonuca varamamï¿½ï¿½lardï¿½r.
Bu gerï¿½eï¿½e raï¿½men, evrim teorisinin bu denli yaygï¿½n bir biï¿½imde
savunulmasï¿½ ve insanlara empoze edilmesinin tek nedeni ise, teorinin
ideolojik yï¿½nï¿½dï¿½r.