Yaï¿½anan iki bï¿½yï¿½k dï¿½nya savaï¿½ï¿½ndan sonra, 1960'lï¿½ yï¿½llarï¿½n sonlarï¿½nda "savaï¿½ sonrasï¿½ hï¿½zlï¿½ bï¿½yï¿½me modeli" son nefeslerini vermiï¿½ti. Diï¿½er bir ifade ile bu model ï¿½erï¿½evesinde verimliliï¿½i daha fazla artï¿½rma programlarï¿½ artï¿½k tï¿½kenmiï¿½ti.

Petrol krizinin ardï¿½ndan

Bu yï¿½llarda baï¿½layan ve 1974'de petrol kriziyle belirginleï¿½en bunalï¿½m, geliï¿½miï¿½ ï¿½lke ekonomilerinde verimlilik hï¿½zï¿½nï¿½n yavaï¿½lamasï¿½ ve kar oranï¿½nï¿½n dï¿½ï¿½meye baï¿½lamasï¿½yla belirginleï¿½ti. ï¿½yle ki, bï¿½nyesinde sadece Batï¿½lï¿½ Avrupa ï¿½lkelerini, Amerika, Kanada, Japonya gibi geliï¿½miï¿½ ï¿½lkeleri barï¿½ndï¿½ran OECD ï¿½lkelerinde iï¿½sizlik 10 milyonlarca kiï¿½iye ulaï¿½tï¿½. Bu atmosferde, reel ï¿½retimde deï¿½erlenme olanaï¿½ï¿½ bulamayan sermayeler, dï¿½nya ï¿½lï¿½eï¿½inde kar arayï¿½ï¿½ï¿½na girdi ve diï¿½er geliï¿½mekte olan ï¿½lkelere yï¿½neldi. Bï¿½ylece, teknolojinin saï¿½ladï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ imkanlar ve kolaylï¿½klarla beraber, son yirmi yï¿½lï¿½n en sï¿½ratli geliï¿½en sektï¿½rï¿½ finans sektï¿½rï¿½ oldu.Bu sï¿½reï¿½ iï¿½inde dikkatlerini geliï¿½mekte olan ï¿½lkelere ï¿½eviren sermayeler, bï¿½yï¿½k karlarï¿½ bu bï¿½lgelerde elde etmiï¿½lerdir. Bu dï¿½nemde uluslararasï¿½ sermayenin hedef teï¿½kil ettiï¿½i ï¿½lkeler aldï¿½klarï¿½ paralarï¿½n ï¿½ok az bir kï¿½smï¿½nï¿½ reel deï¿½er ï¿½retimine kaydï¿½rdï¿½lar. Oysa para ancak ï¿½retimde kullanï¿½ldï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nda deï¿½erini artï¿½rabilir, bï¿½ylece hem alï¿½nan borï¿½larï¿½n geri ï¿½denebilmesi, hem de ekonomilerin geliï¿½mesi mï¿½mkï¿½n olabilirdi. Ancak, alï¿½nan borï¿½larï¿½n ciddi bir bï¿½lï¿½mï¿½ verimsiz kullanï¿½lmï¿½ï¿½, bir bï¿½lï¿½mï¿½ de rï¿½ï¿½vet yoluyla tekrar uluslararasï¿½ finans sistemine dahil edilmiï¿½tir. Az geliï¿½miï¿½ ï¿½lkelerin sermayelerini gerï¿½ek deï¿½erlendirme alanlarï¿½ndan uzaklaï¿½tï¿½rmalarï¿½, ï¿½lkeleri -borï¿½larï¿½n geri ï¿½denmesi noktasï¿½nda- birï¿½ok sï¿½kï¿½ntï¿½larla yï¿½zyï¿½ze getirmiï¿½tir.

Biriken borï¿½lar ve kredi ï¿½ï¿½kmazï¿½

Biriken borï¿½larï¿½nï¿½ ï¿½deyemeyen ekonomiler ï¿½areyi tekrar borï¿½lanmada bulmuï¿½lar ve iï¿½inden ï¿½ï¿½kï¿½lmasï¿½ imkansï¿½z bir kï¿½sï¿½r dï¿½ngï¿½ iï¿½inde bï¿½rakï¿½lmï¿½ï¿½lardï¿½r. Buna mï¿½teakip, piyasadaki verimsiz
kredi geniï¿½lemesini faiz oranlarï¿½nï¿½n artï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ izlemiï¿½, borï¿½ faizlerinin yeni borï¿½larla karï¿½ï¿½lanmaya ï¿½alï¿½ï¿½ï¿½lmasï¿½yla faizin sï¿½rï¿½klediï¿½i bir borï¿½lanma sï¿½recine girilmiï¿½tir. Bu sï¿½reï¿½ ï¿½retken yatï¿½rï¿½mlarï¿½n verimliliï¿½ini dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rï¿½rken, yatï¿½rï¿½mcï¿½larï¿½n bir bï¿½lï¿½mï¿½nï¿½ iflasa, bir bï¿½lï¿½mï¿½nï¿½ de iï¿½letmelerinde ciddi daralmaya sï¿½rï¿½klemiï¿½tir.Piyasadan iyice elini ï¿½eken para, ï¿½reticilerin ï¿½rï¿½nlerini satmakta sï¿½kï¿½ntï¿½ ï¿½ekmelerine ve bankalara olan borï¿½larï¿½nï¿½ ï¿½deyememelerine neden olur. Sanayicilerden alacaklarï¿½nï¿½ tahsil edemeyen banka ve finans kurumlarï¿½ da borï¿½lu olduklarï¿½ diï¿½er yurt dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ kaynaklarï¿½na (uluslararasï¿½ sermayelere) borï¿½larï¿½nï¿½ halktan topladï¿½klarï¿½ mevduatlarla ï¿½demeye kalkarlar. Bu durum herhangi bir sï¿½ylentide (kï¿½tï¿½ye giden ekonomilerde sï¿½ylentilerin piyasalara ciddi etkileri olduï¿½u gï¿½z ï¿½nï¿½nde bulundurulursa) parasï¿½nï¿½ geri almak isteyen mï¿½ï¿½terilerin genelde isteklerinin yerine getirilememesi sonucunu doï¿½urur. Banka, sonunda iflasï¿½nï¿½ aï¿½ï¿½klayarak, yurt dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½na olan tï¿½m borï¿½ yï¿½kï¿½nï¿½ devlet devralmï¿½ï¿½ olur.

Altï¿½ndan kalkï¿½lamayan faiz yï¿½kï¿½ ve Arjantin

Bunlarï¿½n altï¿½ndan kalkamayan devlet ï¿½ï¿½zï¿½mï¿½ yine -bu sefer ciddi faiz yï¿½kï¿½mlï¿½lï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ altï¿½na girerek toleranslar vererek- ek borï¿½ almada bulur. Ama yine kurtulamaz. Dikkat edilmesi gereken nokta, ï¿½dï¿½nï¿½ alï¿½nan paranï¿½n geri ï¿½denebilmesinin ancak sermayenin reel ï¿½retimde deï¿½erlendirilmesiyle mï¿½mkï¿½n olmasï¿½dï¿½r.80'li ve 90'lï¿½ yï¿½llarda yaï¿½anan krizlerin temel nedeni bu sermayelerin reel ï¿½retimde yeterli bir oranda deï¿½erlendirilmemesidir.Gï¿½nï¿½mï¿½zde faiz kï¿½skacï¿½na giren ï¿½lkelerden verilebilecek en son ï¿½rnek ise 130 milyarlï¿½k dï¿½ï¿½ borcuyla ekonomisi ï¿½ï¿½kmï¿½ï¿½ olan Arjantin'dir. Kapanan iï¿½yerleri, aï¿½ï¿½kta kalan iï¿½sizler, sesini duyurmak isteyen ï¿½aresiz insanlar, hepsi sosyal sï¿½kï¿½ntï¿½lara sebebiyet verirler. Nitekim bu ï¿½lkede yaï¿½anmaya baï¿½layan ve yakï¿½n gelecekte yaï¿½anmasï¿½ muhtemel sosyal sorunlar endiï¿½eyle izlenmektedir.ï¿½ncelikle borï¿½lar verimsiz veya haksï¿½z bir ï¿½ekilde erimemeli, tï¿½mï¿½yle verimli ï¿½retim sahalarï¿½nda deï¿½erlendirilmelidir. Bu yatï¿½rï¿½mlardan yararlanan sanayiler imkanlarï¿½ doï¿½rultusunda dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½k fiyat ve yï¿½ksek kaliteyi yakalamalï¿½; bï¿½ylece yabancï¿½ mallarï¿½n ithalatï¿½nï¿½ dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rmeli ve ï¿½lkenin ihracatï¿½nï¿½ artï¿½rmalï¿½dï¿½r.

Ekonomik kaosun ï¿½ï¿½zï¿½mï¿½ Kuran ahlakï¿½

Ekonomisine para giren ï¿½lke, borï¿½larï¿½nï¿½ rahat ï¿½deyebileceï¿½i gibi verdiï¿½i gï¿½venle yeni ve gï¿½venilir bir yatï¿½rï¿½m sahasï¿½ olacak, dï¿½nyada karlï¿½ iï¿½letmelere yatï¿½rï¿½m yaparak kazanï¿½ saï¿½lamayï¿½ bekleyen sermayeleri ï¿½ekecektir. Bu sayede o ï¿½lkenin ï¿½irketleri deï¿½erlenecek, parasï¿½ istikrara kavuï¿½turacak, iï¿½sizlik oranï¿½ azalacak ve hepsinden ï¿½nemlisi halk huzura kavuï¿½up, geleceï¿½e umutla bakacaktï¿½r.Faiz ekonomisinin neden olduï¿½u derin kaos, gï¿½nï¿½mï¿½ze kadar bir ï¿½ok ï¿½lkede kendini gï¿½stermiï¿½ ve faturasï¿½nï¿½ o ï¿½lkenin halkï¿½na ï¿½ok aï¿½ï¿½r bir ï¿½ekilde ï¿½detmiï¿½tir. Kiï¿½isel ï¿½ï¿½karlarï¿½n ve gayri ahlaki kazanï¿½larï¿½n neden olduï¿½u ve birï¿½ok ï¿½lkenin yakasï¿½nï¿½ bï¿½rakmayan bu sï¿½kï¿½ntï¿½larï¿½n kesin ï¿½ï¿½zï¿½mï¿½nï¿½ Allah Kuran-ï¿½ Kerim'de aï¿½ï¿½kï¿½a belirtmiï¿½tir. Allah, kiï¿½ilerin mallarï¿½nï¿½n haksï¿½zlï¿½kla yenilmesini ve varolan kaynaklarï¿½n israf edilerek kullanï¿½lmasï¿½nï¿½ haram kï¿½ldï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ gibi, kendi menfaatleri uï¿½runa diï¿½er insanlarï¿½ hiï¿½e sayï¿½p, onlarï¿½ sï¿½kï¿½ntï¿½lara sokmayï¿½ da yasaklamï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r. Ekonomideki olumsuzluklarï¿½n ï¿½ï¿½zï¿½mï¿½ verimli, adaletli, giriï¿½imci bir insan modelini tavsiye eden Kuran ahlakï¿½nï¿½n tï¿½m insanlar arasï¿½nda yaï¿½anmasï¿½dï¿½r.ï¿½nsanlar arasï¿½nda barï¿½ï¿½, adalet ve huzur ortamï¿½nï¿½n saï¿½lanmasï¿½ ancak insanlarï¿½n Kuran ahlakï¿½nï¿½ yaï¿½amasï¿½yla saï¿½lanabildiï¿½i gibi; ekonomideki olumsuzluklarï¿½n ortadan kaldï¿½rï¿½lmasï¿½ ve her insanï¿½n yaï¿½am kalitesinin artmasï¿½ da yine Kuran ahlakï¿½nï¿½n hayatï¿½n her alanï¿½nda uygulanmasï¿½yla mï¿½mkï¿½n olabilir.
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ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½k, hemen hemen her
toplum ve ideolojiden kiï¿½inin hemfikir olduï¿½u ve savunduï¿½u bir kavramdï¿½r.
ï¿½nsanlï¿½k tarihindeki ï¿½atï¿½ï¿½malarï¿½n, savaï¿½larï¿½n ï¿½oï¿½undaki amaï¿½, ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½ï¿½ï¿½
kazanmak olmuï¿½tur.
Batï¿½ dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ncesinin ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½ï¿½e verdiï¿½i anlamï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½yle ï¿½zetleyebiliriz:
ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½k, insana, diï¿½er insanlar (toplum) ya da devlet -veya baï¿½ka
herhangi bir kurum- tarafï¿½ndan hiï¿½bir kï¿½sï¿½tlama ve baskï¿½ yapï¿½lmamasï¿½dï¿½r.Bugï¿½n
Batï¿½ toplumlarï¿½nï¿½n iï¿½inde bulunduklarï¿½ toplumsal yapï¿½, modern Batï¿½
felsefesi tarafï¿½ndan tarifi yapï¿½lan "ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½k" kavramï¿½nï¿½n,
insanï¿½n kurtuluï¿½unu saï¿½lamadï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½ gï¿½stermektedir.

Okullarda, bilimsel kaynaklarda ve bir kï¿½sï¿½m medyada, teori ispatlanmï¿½ï¿½
bir gerï¿½ek gibi sunulmakta, pek ï¿½ok insan da bu nedenle evrimi hiï¿½
sorgulamadan kabul etmektedir. Oysa her geï¿½en gï¿½n geliï¿½en, paleoantropoloji,
antropoloji ve mikrobiyoloji gibi bilim dallarï¿½, sï¿½zï¿½nï¿½ ettiï¿½imiz
yaygï¿½n inanï¿½ï¿½ï¿½n aksine, evrim teorisini sï¿½rekli yalanlamaktadï¿½rlar.
Evrimi ispatlamak iï¿½in 150 yï¿½ldï¿½r aralï¿½ksï¿½z sï¿½rdï¿½rï¿½len ï¿½alï¿½ï¿½malar,
teoriyi ï¿½ï¿½rï¿½tmekten baï¿½ka bir sonuca varamamï¿½ï¿½lardï¿½r.
Bu gerï¿½eï¿½e raï¿½men, evrim teorisinin bu denli yaygï¿½n bir biï¿½imde
savunulmasï¿½ ve insanlara empoze edilmesinin tek nedeni ise, teorinin
ideolojik yï¿½nï¿½dï¿½r.