Haï¿½lï¿½ Seferleri sï¿½rasï¿½nda Kudï¿½s’te ortaya ï¿½ï¿½kan Tapï¿½nak ï¿½ï¿½valyeleri, zamanla tï¿½m Avrupa’yï¿½ ekonomik ve siyasi aï¿½ï¿½dan etkisi altï¿½na alan ï¿½lkelerï¿½stï¿½ ï¿½nemli bir gï¿½ï¿½ haline geldiler. 14. yï¿½zyï¿½lda Fransa Kralï¿½ ve Papa V. Clement tarafï¿½ndan ortadan kaldï¿½rï¿½lmaya ï¿½alï¿½ï¿½ï¿½lan Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar, gerï¿½ekte hiï¿½bir zaman yok olmadï¿½lar.

Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar ya da diï¿½er adï¿½yla Sï¿½leyman Tapï¿½naï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½valyeleri, Ortaï¿½aï¿½ Avrupa tarihinin en ilginï¿½ ve en gizemli konularï¿½ndan birisi. ï¿½rgï¿½tï¿½n kurulmasï¿½ Birinci Haï¿½lï¿½ Seferi sï¿½rasï¿½nda gerï¿½ekleï¿½ti. Bilindiï¿½i gibi bu sefer sonucunda Haï¿½lï¿½lar, Kudï¿½s’ï¿½ ele geï¿½irmiï¿½ ve yeni bir Haï¿½lï¿½ Krallï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ kurmuï¿½lardï¿½. Bu Krallï¿½k, Selahaddin Eyyï¿½bi tarafï¿½ndan yï¿½kï¿½lana dek, Kudï¿½s’ï¿½ elinde bulundurdu. Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar, iï¿½te bu Krallï¿½k dï¿½neminde ortaya ï¿½ï¿½ktï¿½lar.

Gittikï¿½e bï¿½yï¿½yen ekonomik gï¿½ï¿½

1118’de Haï¿½lï¿½ Kralï¿½ 2. Baudouin, Kudï¿½s’e Payns’lï¿½ Hugues adlï¿½ birinin ï¿½nderliï¿½inde dokuz kiï¿½i gï¿½ndermiï¿½ti. Bu dokuz kiï¿½i “ï¿½sa’nï¿½n Yoksul ï¿½ï¿½valyeleri” adï¿½nda yeni bir tarikatï¿½n ï¿½ekirdeï¿½ini oluï¿½turdular.

Kral onlarï¿½, ï¿½ok ï¿½nemli bir yere, Kudï¿½s’teki Sï¿½leyman Tapï¿½naï¿½ï¿½’nï¿½n olduï¿½u noktaya yerleï¿½tirdi... Bu ï¿½ï¿½valyeler kï¿½sa sï¿½rede sayï¿½ ve gï¿½ï¿½ yï¿½nï¿½nden geliï¿½tiler ve koruyucusu olduklarï¿½ Tapï¿½nak’a nispetle Tapï¿½nak ï¿½ï¿½valyeleri olarak anï¿½lmaya baï¿½landï¿½lar. Liderlerine -mason geleneï¿½inde olduï¿½u gibi- “ï¿½stad” diyorlardï¿½. En bï¿½yï¿½klerine “Bï¿½yï¿½k ï¿½stad”...

Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar gittikï¿½e bï¿½yï¿½yen bir ï¿½rgï¿½t haline geldiler. Yalnï¿½zca Kudï¿½s’te deï¿½il, Avrupa’da, ï¿½zellikle de Fransa’da ï¿½ok sayï¿½da Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½ oluï¿½tu. Kutsal Topraklar’ï¿½n gï¿½venliï¿½i onlardan sorulmaya baï¿½lanmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½.

Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar ï¿½irketleï¿½iyor

Bu arada Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar, ticari faaliyetlere ve ï¿½irketleï¿½meye de baï¿½ladï¿½lar. Avrupa’dan Filistin’e gitmek iï¿½in yola ï¿½ï¿½kan zengin hacï¿½larï¿½n deï¿½erli eï¿½yalarï¿½nï¿½ Avrupa’da devralï¿½p karï¿½ï¿½lï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nda ï¿½ekler veriyorlardï¿½. Filistin’e ulaï¿½an yolcular orada bu ï¿½ekleri Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar vasï¿½tasï¿½yla paraya ï¿½evirebiliyorlardï¿½, ama Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar'a yï¿½klï¿½ bir faiz geliri bï¿½rakarak.

ï¿½ek hesabï¿½nï¿½ Floransalï¿½ bankerlerden ï¿½nce icat etmiï¿½lerdi. Nitekim Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar baï¿½ï¿½ï¿½lardan, iï¿½gallerden, parasal iï¿½lemlerden elde ettikleri yï¿½zdelerle devasa bir ï¿½irket haline geldiler.

Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar'ï¿½n ekonomik boyutuna, Michael Baigent ve Richard Leigh’in birlikte yazdï¿½klarï¿½ The Temple and the Lodge (Tapï¿½nak ve Loca) adlï¿½ kitapta deï¿½inilmiï¿½tir. Bu kitapta, modern bankacï¿½lï¿½ï¿½ï¿½n kï¿½keninin Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar'a dayandï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½ ve bu ï¿½rgï¿½tï¿½n Avrupa’daki servetin ï¿½nemli bir bï¿½lï¿½mï¿½nï¿½ elinde bulundurduklarï¿½ anlatï¿½lmaktadï¿½r. Fransï¿½z ve ï¿½ngiliz Krallï¿½klarï¿½na bile faizle para verdiklerinin belirtildiï¿½i kitapta, “Hiï¿½bir Ortaï¿½aï¿½ kurumu kapitalizmin yï¿½kseliï¿½ine Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar kadar katkï¿½da bulunmamï¿½ï¿½tï¿½r” tespiti de yer alï¿½yor. (Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh, The Temple and the Lodge, s. 78-80)

Sapkï¿½n bir tarikat

Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar'ï¿½n aslï¿½nda bundan ï¿½ok daha ilginï¿½ bazï¿½ ï¿½zellikleri vardï¿½. Bu ï¿½zelliklerin baï¿½ï¿½nda tarikatï¿½n gizli tï¿½ren ve ayinleri geliyordu. Uzun sï¿½re bu tï¿½renleri tarikata ï¿½ye olmayan hiï¿½ kimse bilmedi. Fakat zamanla sï¿½zan bilgiler, Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar'ï¿½n gerï¿½ekte Hï¿½ristiyanlï¿½ktan bï¿½yï¿½k bir sapmayla uzaklaï¿½tï¿½klarï¿½nï¿½ ve birï¿½ok sapkï¿½n uygulamalar iï¿½inde olduklarï¿½nï¿½ gï¿½steriyordu.

Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar'ï¿½n bï¿½yï¿½k bir sapkï¿½nlï¿½k iï¿½inde olduklarï¿½na dair kuï¿½kularï¿½n iyice artmasï¿½ ve bï¿½yï¿½k bir gizlilik iï¿½inde gerï¿½ekleï¿½en ayinler 1307 yï¿½lï¿½nda Fransa Kralï¿½ ve Papa V. Clement’in emriyle Paris’teki Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar'ï¿½n tï¿½mï¿½nï¿½n tutuklanmasï¿½yla sonuï¿½landï¿½. Gizli toplantï¿½larï¿½nda neler yaptï¿½klarï¿½ ile ilgili sorgulandï¿½lar. ï¿½tiraflar ilginï¿½ti:

“Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar’ï¿½n ï¿½oï¿½u, ï¿½sa’ya inanmayï¿½p onu ‘sahte peygamber’ olarak gï¿½rdï¿½klerini kabul ettiler. Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar’ï¿½n sorgusu sï¿½rasï¿½nda hemen hepsinin kabul ettiï¿½i ve kesinleï¿½en bir ï¿½ey var: Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar’ï¿½n tapï¿½ndï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ bir tï¿½r put. ï¿½oï¿½u Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½ bu figï¿½rï¿½ gï¿½rdï¿½klerini sï¿½ylemiï¿½tir... Bazï¿½ Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar gizemli bir kedi figï¿½rï¿½nden sï¿½z etmiï¿½tir. Ortak gï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ bu figï¿½rï¿½n ï¿½eytan’ï¿½ temsil ettiï¿½i yï¿½nï¿½ndedir.” (Levis Spence, The Encyclopedica of the Occult, s. 406)

Yï¿½llar sï¿½ren sorgu ve mahkemelerin sonucu bu sapkï¿½nlï¿½klarï¿½nï¿½n aï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a ï¿½ï¿½kmasï¿½nï¿½n ardï¿½ndan Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½ Tarikatï¿½, Papa 5. Clement tarafï¿½ndan tamamen yasaklandï¿½. Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar'ï¿½n “Bï¿½yï¿½k ï¿½stad”ï¿½ 1314'de idam edildi. Papa tï¿½m Avrupa krallï¿½klarï¿½na ï¿½aï¿½rï¿½ gï¿½ndererek ï¿½lkelerinde yaï¿½ayan Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar'ï¿½n tutuklanmasï¿½nï¿½ istedi.

Yer altï¿½ndaki tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar

Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar, yasaklanï¿½p ï¿½nde gelenlerinin ï¿½oï¿½unun idam edilmesinin ardï¿½ndan, Avrupa’nï¿½n farklï¿½ bï¿½lgelerinde kendilerine gï¿½venli yerler bulup, varlï¿½klarï¿½nï¿½ yer altï¿½nda sï¿½rdï¿½rdï¿½ler. Anlatï¿½ldï¿½ï¿½ï¿½na gï¿½re, Paris’teki Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar'ï¿½n bir bï¿½lï¿½mï¿½, haklarï¿½nda tutuklama kararï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½kmadan bir gece ï¿½nce ï¿½ehirden gizlice ayrï¿½ldï¿½lar. Bu yer altï¿½ Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½larï¿½’na “Yeni-Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar” adï¿½ verildi. Yeni Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar’ï¿½n sï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ndï¿½klarï¿½ yer ise, Gï¿½ney Fransa’daki Provins bï¿½lgesiydi. ï¿½ehrin altï¿½nda aï¿½ï¿½lan yer altï¿½ tï¿½nelleriyle birbirlerine baï¿½lï¿½ gizli toplanma yerleri kurulan Provins, bu dï¿½nemde Kabalistlerin ve Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar’ï¿½n karargahï¿½ olarak kullanï¿½ldï¿½. Kabalistler ve Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar Fransa’da da benzer hedefler peï¿½indeydiler. Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar, ï¿½nceleri siyasi ve ekonomik bir gï¿½ce sahipken Papa ve ona baï¿½lï¿½ krallï¿½klar tarafï¿½ndan yasaklanmï¿½ï¿½ ve sindirilmiï¿½ bir gizli ï¿½rgï¿½t konumundaydï¿½. Yahudiler gibi kiliseye ve ona baï¿½lï¿½ krallï¿½klara derin bir nefret besliyor ve ï¿½ï¿½ alma isteï¿½iyle yanï¿½p tutuï¿½uyorlardï¿½.

Gï¿½nï¿½mï¿½zde de varlï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ tartï¿½ï¿½ma konusu olan Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar Tarikatï¿½ belki resmen kapatï¿½lmï¿½ï¿½tï¿½, ama fiilen hiï¿½ yok olmadï¿½. The Encyclopedia of the Occult (Okï¿½ltizm Ansiklopedisi) 428. sayfasï¿½nda bu konuyla ilgili ï¿½unlar aktarï¿½lmaktadï¿½r:

“Konuyla ilgili ï¿½oï¿½u kaynak tarafï¿½ndan, Bï¿½yï¿½k ï¿½stad Jacques de Molay’ï¿½n ï¿½lï¿½mï¿½yle birlikte, hayatta kalan Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar tarafï¿½ndan bir komplo tasarlandï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ne sï¿½rï¿½lï¿½r. Buna gï¿½re, Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar’ï¿½n amacï¿½, kendilerini yasaklayï¿½p ï¿½stad’larï¿½nï¿½ ï¿½ldï¿½ren Papalï¿½ï¿½ï¿½n ve bazï¿½ Avrupa krallï¿½klarï¿½nï¿½n yï¿½kï¿½lmasï¿½dï¿½r. Bu amacï¿½n nesiller boyunca aktarï¿½ldï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½ ve Tapï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½lar’ï¿½n devamï¿½ olan Aydï¿½nlanmacï¿½lar ve Gï¿½l-Haï¿½ (Rose-Croix) gibi ï¿½rgï¿½tlerce sï¿½rdï¿½rï¿½ldï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ sï¿½ylenir. Masonluï¿½un etkisiyle geliï¿½en ve Fransï¿½z tahtï¿½nï¿½n yok olmasï¿½nï¿½ saï¿½layan Fransï¿½z Devrimi de bunun bir sonucu olarak yorumlanï¿½r.”

ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½k, hemen hemen her
toplum ve ideolojiden kiï¿½inin hemfikir olduï¿½u ve savunduï¿½u bir kavramdï¿½r.
ï¿½nsanlï¿½k tarihindeki ï¿½atï¿½ï¿½malarï¿½n, savaï¿½larï¿½n ï¿½oï¿½undaki amaï¿½, ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½ï¿½ï¿½
kazanmak olmuï¿½tur.
Batï¿½ dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ncesinin ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½ï¿½e verdiï¿½i anlamï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½yle ï¿½zetleyebiliriz:
ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½k, insana, diï¿½er insanlar (toplum) ya da devlet -veya baï¿½ka
herhangi bir kurum- tarafï¿½ndan hiï¿½bir kï¿½sï¿½tlama ve baskï¿½ yapï¿½lmamasï¿½dï¿½r.Bugï¿½n
Batï¿½ toplumlarï¿½nï¿½n iï¿½inde bulunduklarï¿½ toplumsal yapï¿½, modern Batï¿½
felsefesi tarafï¿½ndan tarifi yapï¿½lan "ï¿½zgï¿½rlï¿½k" kavramï¿½nï¿½n,
insanï¿½n kurtuluï¿½unu saï¿½lamadï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½ gï¿½stermektedir.

Okullarda, bilimsel kaynaklarda ve bir kï¿½sï¿½m medyada, teori ispatlanmï¿½ï¿½
bir gerï¿½ek gibi sunulmakta, pek ï¿½ok insan da bu nedenle evrimi hiï¿½
sorgulamadan kabul etmektedir. Oysa her geï¿½en gï¿½n geliï¿½en, paleoantropoloji,
antropoloji ve mikrobiyoloji gibi bilim dallarï¿½, sï¿½zï¿½nï¿½ ettiï¿½imiz
yaygï¿½n inanï¿½ï¿½ï¿½n aksine, evrim teorisini sï¿½rekli yalanlamaktadï¿½rlar.
Evrimi ispatlamak iï¿½in 150 yï¿½ldï¿½r aralï¿½ksï¿½z sï¿½rdï¿½rï¿½len ï¿½alï¿½ï¿½malar,
teoriyi ï¿½ï¿½rï¿½tmekten baï¿½ka bir sonuca varamamï¿½ï¿½lardï¿½r.
Bu gerï¿½eï¿½e raï¿½men, evrim teorisinin bu denli yaygï¿½n bir biï¿½imde
savunulmasï¿½ ve insanlara empoze edilmesinin tek nedeni ise, teorinin
ideolojik yï¿½nï¿½dï¿½r.